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Swords,

a small but very ancient town, of about 330 houses, and a population of 1,727 persons, as returned in 1824. It is situated about seven Irish miles from the metropolis, consists chiefly of one long wide street, and was a borough in the Irish parliament to which it returned two members, the elective franchise being in the resident householders. The Anchor Inn, was the scene of the election contests on these occasions, still attracts the eye of the traveller by its ancient aspect.

"The remains of the buildings at present to be seen here," says Bell, "are chiefly of the pointed gothic order, but from its appearance it must have been one of the earliest specimens after its introduction into Ireland. The arches, as was usual at that early period, are of a mixed style, some circular, others pointed, but generally of rude workmanship. The present walls enclose an area of great extent, and several parts indicate that they were founded as much for strength and protection as for any other purpose. They were strongly fortified with towers, and their exterior presents an embattled front, of an imposing appearance, and from the constant ravages which this [270] abbey suffered from their Danish neighbours, it is evident these fortifications were not uncalled for." Here is also a round tower, with a perfect conical top, on which, however, triumphant Christianity has planted the cross. It is considered one of the plainest of these interesting structures, is calculated to be 73 feet high, and stands about 50 feet distant from the church. In the instance of this tower, as in others, there is no projecting base, or if there should be, it is buried beneath the surface of the earth. Like a specimen at Brechin, in Scotland, described by Mr. Gordon, it "seems to shoot out of the ground like a tree." The era and design of these edifices shall be more particularly treated of at the locality of "Rathmichael."

The situation of this little town is exceedingly picturesque, and is best observed from the churchyard in which stand the ivied round tower, the square belfry of the old abbey beside it, (commanding from its summit a most extensive view,) and a neat, new church of cut stone in the pointed style, unfortunately, however, constructed of the materials and on the site of the ancient abbey. Over the communion-table of this church, is a painting of the leper cured in the pool of Bethsaida, while the window above it exhibits, in painted compartments, figures of Moses, Malachi, Ezekiel, Hosea, and Jeremiah. There are mural monuments near the communion table, one to Doctor Scardeville, Dean of Cloyne, who died in 1703, and to some members of his family; another to Doctor Owen, Dean of Clonmacnoise, who died in 1761; [271] and a third to Christopher Hewetson, who died in 1694, Dean of Christ Church and Vicar of Swords. On the floor, at the foot of the communion-table, is a tombstone of the date of 1587, to the memory of James Blackney and Elizabeth Taylor his wife. There is also a mural slab near the entrance of the church to Captain Berkeley, who died in 1803. In the graveyard is a small but apparently a very ancient cross, but no sepulchral monuments worthy of notice, with the exception of one ancient stone commemorative of the Taylor family. - Close to the church is the glebehouse, with a glebe of 33a. 2r. 20p. [It may he remarked, that the acreable contents of glebes, manors, and forfeited estate; are stated throughout this work in the ancient Irish measure, in respect to the documents which so respectively report them.] contiguous.

Descending from the church, by a fine old village elm encircled with a seat of sodded stones, once sacred to village gaiety and gossiping, and crossing the little stream that waters this town, the visitor approaches the embattled enclosure which yet presents considerable remains of the archiepiscopal palace, and of the old chapel dedicated to St. Columb, the warder's walk round the castle walls, and several watch towers. On the line of the walls, at one side is the outer gable of a building, popularly said to have been that in which parliaments have been assembled. Its window is very remarkable' for the millions and casements, which are all of a red sandstone unknown in this country. The whole interior of the edifice, as also of several others which were included in the existing [272] walls, have been removed, and the circumscribed area cultivated as an orchard. In front of the castle is the village draw-well, beside which are the stocks, intended for the refractory portion of the seneschal's subjects, but now the usual roost of the village poultry. South of the main street is the Roman Catholic church, built about the year 1827, and having a conspicuous steeple 70 feet high.

Four annual fairs are held in this town, but no market. Several houses still exhibit ancient escutcheons of inns, the Harp, the Anchor, the Black Bull, and above all the Royal Oak, with King Charles blazing in scarlet and gold through its ill furnished branches, and a whole regiment bivouacking at its foot. But these fair, outward signs, are but deceptive heralds as to any accommodation or entertainment within. The commons here comprised about 100 acres, while those at Drynam, within the liberties, contained 20. Great encroachments, however, hae taken place on both, and but a small proportion now remains unenclosed. The population of the town was in 1821 calculated as 1727, and in 1831 as 2537, the number of its houses was on the latter occasion stated as 484. Mr. Taylor and Mr. Cobbe of Newbridge are its chief proprietors. The liberty of the manor comprises 1,227 acres of the old Irish measure, extending over the townlands of Bealingstown, New Grange, Loughmartin, Brownstown, Rathlucastown, Santerstown, alias, Saucerstown, Rickanhore, Seatown, Rogerstown, Parnelstown, Lusk, Lispobel, Swords, Rollestown, &c.

The parish, in which it is situated, bears its name, constitutes a prebend in St. Patrick's cathedral, and has been assessed to the ancient subsidies, and consequently under the road acts as 3,535 acres, comprised in 37 townlands. Its population, exclusive of the town, was returned as 1,185 persons. The rectory is impropriate, one-third in the prebendary of Swords, one in its vicar, and the other third in the economy of St. Patrick's. The vicarage has been episcopally united since 1810 to the curacies of Killeigh and Killosserv, the patronage being in the Archbishop of Dublin. The vicarial tithes of this have been compounded for at £252 per annum, while it is also to be observed, that the vicar has the control of the rents of the lands of the economy of St. Patrick's and their other possessions here, subject to the trust mentioned hereafter at the year 1431. He accounts annually for this fund to the Archbishop of Dublin. The prebendary has £102 annually, the rent reserved on 380a. of excellent land, held together with his portion of the tithes of the parish by Sir Samuel Synge Hutchinson, under a lease for 21 years. The Down Survey and other ancient documents refer a portion of this parish to the barony of Coolock, but the survey and valuation return of 1824 classes it wholly in Nethercross. It was once a rural bishopric, and still gives its name to a deanery. The Roman Catholic union comprises the parishes of Swords, Malahide, and Lusk, having within its extent a chapel at each of those places, and a chapel of ease at Balheary. The fee in this parish principall belongs [274] to the see of Dublin. The acreable rent varies from two to three guineas, while a cabin without land is usually let for £2 10s. per annun. The number of labourers in the whole Protestant union has been stated as about 700, of whom two-thirds get constant. and the remainder occasional employment; the wages of the former class being about seven shillings, that of the latter eight shillings per week. The lands are principally used in tillage. Fibrous malachite, of a grass-green colour, is met with here, as also copper-green, partly massive, partly disseminated, of various shades of green; and specimens of amethyst found in this neighbourhood, are in the museum of the Dublin Society.

History

According to the Annals of the Four Masters, one of the companions of Heremon founded a fortress here, called the High Rath of Swords.

In 512 the church is said to have been founded by St. Columbkille, who gave it a missal, written by himself; the edifice was accordingly dedicated to him; there were, besides, within the town, three chapels, one dedicated to St. Finian, which, with its adjoining cemetery, was situated on the south side, near to the vicar's manse, on the road to Furrows; one to St. Catherine, within the parochial church; while St. Brigid's chapel was on the north side of the town, adjoining to the prebendary's glebe, and not far front the gates of the old palace. The latter bad two burgages attached to it, and near it was an ancient cross, called "Pardon Cross." Traces are also to be found upon record, of a chapel dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, within the church of Swords, to which Hugo Blackton, Archdeacon of Dublin, was a benefactor in 1486. [Mason's Hist. of St. Patrick's Cathedral.] Here, likewise, was a nunnery and a holy well.

In 1012 Swords was burned by the Danes, and again in 1016.

After the battle of Clontarf, the bodies of Brian Boroimhe and li4s son Morrongh, were conveyed in solemn procession hither, where they were deposited the first night amidst the prayers and chauntings of the fraternity. The funeral proceeded on the following day to Duleek, whence she monks of that establishment conducted the bodies to their sepulchral destination at Armagh.

In 1020 the abbey was destroyed by fire.

In 1028 died Fitz Patrick O'Flaherty, Bishop of Swords.

In 1035 Sitric, the Danish King of Dublin: having devastated Ardbraccan, Conor O'Melaghlin, in retaliation laid waste Swords, "the city of Columb-killee." [Annals of the Four Masters.]

In 1069 the town was greatly injured by fire, and again in 1130, 1138, 1150, and 1166, while in 1135 it was sacked, and nearly depopulated by O'Melaghlin, King of Meath; the sacrilege was, however, avenged by the people of Lust who slew O'Melaghlin. Immediately after the English invasion, Swords was granted to the se of Dublin, and so still continues annexed thereto. In 1182 the Pope confirmed it to the Archbishop of Dublin with its church and appurtenances, as previously granted by Prince John, a right which Pope Innocent farther ratified in 1216. For a notice in 1227, see "Memoirs of the Archbishops of Dublin."

In 1191 Archbishop Comyn granted to St. Patrick's church the tithes of all his mills, except those of Swords, which he had previously given to the monastery of Grace Dieu. The prebend of Swords was then one of the 13 canonries annexed to St. Patrick's, as is recited in a Bull of Pope Celestine the Third, and Walter Comyn, most probably a relative of the archbishop, was its prebendary. It afterwards obtained the name of the golden prebend in consequence of its great value, arising out of considerable demesnes and tithes issuing from a large and fertile district.

In 1192 a patent was granted to the Archbishop of Dublin for an annual eight-day fair in the town of Swords, on the feast of St. Columb-kille, and in 1197 King Richard granted a charter to this place, by which each burgess was to pay for his burgage 12 [276] pence annually. For a notice in 1227, see the "Memoirs of tie Archbishops of Dublin?'

In 1230 Archbishop Luke allotted to the vicar or Swords the small tithes of the lands within the manor, with the obventions and altarages. In 1306 the prebend was valued at £40, and the vicarage at £5, and in 1326 an inquisition was taken as to the extent of the manor. In the following year the Archbishop of Dublin had a confirmation of his rights herein, as also in 1394 from King Richard during his sojourn in Dublin. In 1336 the celebrated William of Wykeham held this prebend, then taxed to the First Fruits at 90 marks, together with 11 benefices in England. He was afterwards Bishop of Winchester.

In 1375 died Peter de Lacy, rector and prebendary of Swords, in remembrance of whom a monument and a brass effigy have been erected in the church of North Fleet, Kent. In 1378 the king confirmed the right of the Archbishop of Dublin to this manor.

In 1386 John Netterville, Vicar of Swords, and Robert Cruce, prebendary thereof, had license to go into England, without incurring any diminution of their tithes under the penalties against absentees. In the following year the latter dignitary had a special permission from Robert de Vere, Marquis of Dublin, entitling him to export for sale, corn and fish appertaining to his prebend, to England, Wales, Bayonne, Bourdeaux, or Portugal. For a notice in 1387, see "Memoirs of the Archbishops of Dublin" at that year.

In 1397 a chapel was dedicated, within the church of Swords, to the Holy Trinity, and endowed by a person of the name of Brown with a messuage, a garden, and four acres of ground in Rogerstown, for the pious celebration of his anniversary. In the same year John de Melton, clerk, preferred a petition to the privy council of England, claiming right to the prebend of Swords, of which John Taaffe had, as he alleged, possessed himself by force of bulls apostolic, although the same appertained to the patronage of the Archbishop of Dublin, and had become void by the death of Walter Bruges, the last prebendary.

In 1411 the king granted to John Tanner, the prebend of St. Columb of Swords in the cathedral of St. Patnck's. [Rot. Claus. 12 Hen. IV. in Canc. Hib.] In 1418 [277] Walter Prendergast, Vicar of the church of St. Columb of Swords, being sued for two-thirds of the profits of his benefice, valued at five marks per annum, and forfeited by the act of absentees, pleaded the king's letters or license, and was accordingly released from the penalty.

In 1423 Brande, Cardinal of Placentia, was nominated by the king to the prebend of Swords, and a writ was directed to the archbishop, commanding him to assign to the cardinal a stall in the choir, and a voice in the chapter, and another likewise to the dean and chapter. In 1431 this prebend, which had been, as observed, called the golden prebend, was divided into three portions; one being assigned to the prebendary, another to the vicar, and a third to the economy of St. Patrick's cathedral, who were to maintain therewith six minor canons and six choristors, the residue to be expended in furnishing lights, in repairs, and in defraying other necessary expenses. This appropriation was confirmed by act of parliament in 1467.

In 1461 Thomas Pollard, Vicar of Swords, had license to absent himself from his parish for one year without incurring any forfeiture of his tithes.

A return of a jury at Swords in 1465, linds that "the Archbishop of Dublin takes wrecks of the sea and weym, holds pleas de vetito namio, hues and bloodshed, holds Englishmen in prison, and levies fines on them, has the correction of bread and beer, and the ell weight, bushel and gallon, by the king's standard and under his seal, holds all pleas in his court, except forestal, rape, arson, treasure-trove, has his own coroners, &c. within his liberties?'

In 1474 a parliamentary grant of 20 shillings per annum was made to Dame Eleanora, Prioress of the nunnery of Swords, and her successors.

1n 1484 Doctor Walton, Archbishop of Dublin, being blind and in an infirm state of health, voluntarily resigned his dignity, and reserved to himself for a maintenance the manor of Swords during his life, which reservation was confirmed to him by act of parliament in the following year.

In 1489, after full hearing of a cause between the vicar of Swords and the dean and chapter of St. Patrick's, the Archbishop of Dublin made a final decree, whereby he decided that the vicar [278] and his predecessors had always possessed the altarages of the parish of Swords and crofts of the same, with half the mortuaries, the wax and offerings of persons dying in the parishes of Malahide, Killossery, and Cloghran, also the tithes, great and small, of the whole demesne of Sederton and Crucefield, parcel of said demesne of little Furrow, and of the whole parish of Kinsaly.

In the 16th century there were five exterior chapels subservient to the mother church of Swords: 1st, Kinsaly already spoken of; 2nd, Lispobel near Clonmethan; 3rd, Killeigh, which Allen calls the most stately of all the chapels of Swords; 4th, Killester; and 5th, Malahide. It had also, in more ancient times, four other subservient chapelries, which are now independent parishes: 1st Cloghran-Swords; 2nd, Dunabate; 3rd, Balgriffin; and 4th, Coolock. The registry of this monastery was in existence in the time of Ware, and is cited by him.

In 1530 the vicar of Swords was entitled to all burial fees of persons dying within the parish. For a notice in 1533, see at "Grace Dieu."

In 1535 Edward Bassenet was, on the death of Richard Fitz Simons, promoted to this benefice, then in the gift or the crown, the see of Dublin being vacant by the murder of Archbishop Allen. In 1539 this prebend was taxed to the First Fruits at £32 14s 0d., and the vicarage at £22 6s. 8d. Irish.

In 1541 the Abbot of St. Mary's Abbey was by inquisition found seised of a close in the lands of Swords, extending from the highway from Swords to Lissenhall on the east to the rivulet called the ringwater on the west, from the road leading from the street of Swords to a passage across the said rivulet, called Scottstones, on the south, and to the fields called the Spittle Acre on the north, comprising about two acres of land, and held under the see of Dublin by fealty and suit of court.

In 1547 the Archbishop of Dublin, with the cosent of his chapters, had license to convey to Robert Eustace, prebendary of Mullaghiddart and others, the office of constable of his castle and manor of Swords, whenever it should become vacant by the death of Thomas Fitz Simons of Swords, the profits and those of other detailed premises to be received by the trustees, to the use of Patrick Barnewall of Grace Dieu, Esq., in fee. In the same [279] year an inquisition was taken as to the extent and value of this prebend, when it was found to possess the demesne called the Court of Lissenhall, containing an orchard, a garden, 150 acres of land, together with sundry cottages and gardens, eight cottages in Swords, with eight acres of arable land, and eight gardens, together with the tithes of certain townlands and the altarages, (the oblations of all being left to the vicar.) See also a notice of Swords in the same year, at "Malahide." By a subsequent inquisition it was found, that the priory of St. John the Baptist, of Dublin, was seised of a messuage and 30 acres of land in the townland of Rathengle, near Swords. The religious house of Grace Dieu was also seised of 30 acres here, called Francumsland. The petit canons of St. Patrick's had a portion of the tithes called the Burgage tithes, the precise extent of which was ascertained in 1657, by survey, directed by the parliamentary commissioners, but those have been since relinquished. The vicars choral of St. Patrick's were also entitled to certain tithes here; and the prior of Holmpatrick was seised of four tenements with their gardens and eight acres of land in the town of Swords, which were, with other possessions of that house, granted to Thomas Fitz Williams.

In 1554 Queen Mary presented Arthur St. Leger to this rectory, void by the death of John Derrick, and then in the gift of thecrown by reason of the see being vacant. In 1564 Doctor Daly, Bishop of Killdare, held the vicarage with other preferments in commendam.

In l578 the queen issued a mandate for the better establishment of the corporation of Swords, and to make known the limits and bounds of the franchises and liberties thereof; and commissioners were thereupon appointed to settle the boundaries, two miles on every side from the town. The town was then accounted according to ancient records, one of the "walled and good towns" of the county.

In 1585 Swords sent its first members to parliament, burgages having been assigned to its burgesses at 12 pence yearly payable out of each. In recurring to this parliamentary assemblage it is worthy to be noted, that it was the first that had any claim to be called Irish, the first that extended beyond the limits of the [280 ] English pale, the first that embraced the interests, and cherished the feelings of the ancient, as well as or the new inhabitants of Ireland.

In 1598 the parsonage was demised for 60 years at the rent of £44 per annum.

In 1613 William Blakeney and John Fitz Simons were the representatives for the borough of Swords, in the parliament that abolished the baneful distinction of English subjects and Irish enemies, which so long biassed the administration or justice, and fomented national disunion. The measure would have acted most beneficially, if the more unholy distinctions of recusant and loyalist, Catholic and Protestant, introduced in the time of James, were not upheld as substitutes for national animosities.

The regal visitation of 1615 values the vicarage of Swords at 100 marks, Christopher Hewetson being then its vicar, and prebendary of Howth; while it states the prebend of Swords to be worth £100 per annum.

In 1620 George Taylor died seised of 80a. in Swords, called Francumsland, which had been parcel of the possessions of the monastery of Grace Dieu, 22 messuages, and 160a., Marshallstown, 40a., Greenock, two messuages and IOOa. [Inquis. in Canc. Hib.] For a notice in 1621, see the "Memoirs of the Archbishops of Dublin," at that time.

In 1637 Sir Edward Bolton had a demise for 43 years of the prebend of Swords, the court, town and lands of Lissenhall, all the tithes thereof, and all the tithes and glebe lands belonging to said prebend, from the Archbishop.

Here, in 1641, the first Irish army of the pale assembled, preparatory to the commencement or that civil war which desolated the land. (See post, at "Corballis.") Amongst those who attended on this occasion, were Luke Netterville of Corballis, George Blackney of Rickenhore, George King of Clontarf, Christopher Hollywood of Artane, John Talbot, Richard Goulding, Thomas Russell, Christopher Russell, Patrick Caddell, William Travers, Richard Barnewall, Laurence Bealing, &c. This assembly took place on the ninth of December, and on the following day the [281] Justices issued their warrant, commanding them "to separate on sight thereof, and that nine of the principal persons so assembled should appear before them at the Cuncil Board, by 10 of the clock the next morning, to shew the cause of their assembling together in that manner." To this warrant they returned an answer, on the same day, to the following effect: "That they were constrained to meet there for the safety of their lives, which they conceived to be in no small danger, having been forced to forsake their dwellings on the last Tuesday at night, by the rising out of horse troops and foot companies, who, on the said night, killed four Catholics for no other reason but because they bore the name of that religion, and that they had been before put into many fears by certain intelligence given them of unexpected atttempts against their lives. Wherefore they desired ardently to be in some certain way assured by their Lordships of the safety of their lives before they ran the hazard thereof, which was the only motive that hindered them from manifesting that obedienc which they knew to be due to their Lordships' commands." [Curry's Histor. Rev. B. v. C. xiv] In consequence of which, Sir Charles Coote was sent hither by the Lords Justices with such forces as could be spared. "He found the access to the village straitly blocked up, yet so managed the attempt as he soon forced them to flight, beating them out of their fortifications and killed 200 of their men, without any considerable loss on his side, wore than Sir Lorenzo Carey, second son of the Lord Falkland, late lord deputy, a gentleman of excellent and ingenious parts, well-principled, and one whose virtues and resolution promised much happiness to the slate. After settling of which place Sir Charles Coote returned to Dublin." [Borlase's Irish Insurrection, p. 71.]

In the ensuing forfeitures Walter Jordan lost 41a. in this parish, John Cadell, 9a., George Blackney, a mansion-house, a water-mill sundry messuages, and 200a., Christopher Russell, 335a., Tichard Goulding 100a., Laurence Bealing, 300a., and John Taylor, the mansion-house of Swords, and upwards of 300a., in its vicinity.

In 1642 John Taylor and George Blackney Esqrs., the sitting [282] members of parliament for Swords, were removed from the house, by the puritan party, on account of their attatchnient to the king's cause.

In 1663 John Taylor was found to have a mansion-house, 20 messuages, and 1OOa. of land in Swords, and sundry ether lands in this county, of which he died seised in 1680. [Inquis. in Canc. Hib.]

In 1666 Sir George Lane had a grant of 40a., plantation measure, here, as had the Archbishop of Dublin in the following year, of Jordan's land in Swords, 41a., forfeited in 1641 by Walter Jordan, and of Talbot's land in Swords, 50a., like measure, with various other lands in augmentation of the see. For a notice in 1674, see "Cloghran."

In 1675 the celebrated Andrew Sall obtained the pretend of Swords, with other preferments. He was born at Cashel, in the county Tipperary, and educated from his infancy in the Roman Catholic faith. In 1639 he was sent abroad to complete his studies, and became Professor of Controversy in the College of Salamanca, and afterwards Professor of Divinity at Pampeluna, Placentia, and Tudela, having been previously admitted into the society of the Jesuits, among whom be took the fourth vow, and was made Professor of Moral Theology in their college at Salamanca. At length, being remanded to Ireland, with the title of Superior of the mission of the Jesuits in that country, about the year 1673 he retired to Cashel, "desiring," as he says himself in the preface to one of his works, "to spend the remnant of his days unknown, to prepare better for the long day of eternity." At this very time, however, under the instrumentality of Dr. Price, the Protestant Archbishop of that province, he conceived and avowed in writing the intention of conforming to the communion or the Established Church. In May, 1674, he made a public declaration of such his conformity in the church of St. John at Cashel, and in July following preached in Christ Church, Dublin, before the Earl of Essex, on the reasons of his change of faith. While in Dublin, he was lodged in Trinity College, and was there admitted to the degree of Doctor of Divinity, when he published a Thesis, containing two conclusions touching the main points in controversy between [283] the two churches; first, that out of the Roman Church there was a safe way for salvation, and second, that the way of the Church of England was safer to salvation than that of the Church of Rome. In 1675 he went to Oxford, and there also was created a Doctor of Divinity, and in 1677 was domestic chaplain to King Charles, about which time several works of controversy were published against him, to which he replied in a work entitled, "True Catholic and Apostolic Faith maintained in the Church of England," which he dedicated to Lord Essex. Soon afterwards "he was rewarded," writes Dr. O'Connor, [Catalog. Biblioth. Stow. v. i. p. 270.] "with the prebend of Swords, the rectory of Ardmulchan, and the chantorship of Cashel; and he, who would have died a beggar had he remained a Catholic, lived to 1682 in affluence purchased by the trade of religion." He resided at Cashel to the time of his death, which occurred in April, 1682, in the 70th year of his age. He was buried in the Cathedral of St. Patrick, Dublin.

In 1681 the archbishop decided what should be paid to the curate of Swords for serving the cures of its chapels, having previously appointed a commission of inquiry to ascertain the real value of its tithes, as before-mentioned at "Malahide."

In 1683 George Viscount Lanesborough died, seised in free and common soccage of 40 acres here. [Inquis. in Canc. Hib.] For a notice in 1685, see "Turvey." In 1689 Viscount Beamount of Swords was one of those attainted in King James's parliameuL. In the same year that monarch renewed the charter of this borough, on which occasion Gerald Dillon, Esq., Prime Serjeant, was to be its portreeve, with 31 burgesses, amongst whom appear the names of five Barnewalls, three Russells, John Stanley, Matthew Caddel, John Taylor, &c.

In 1697 Mr. Christopher Walsh was returned as parish priest of Swords, Cloghran, and Kinsaly, resident in Swords, and having Mr. John Jones as his curate.

In 1700 the Archbishop of Dublin claimed an estate in fee in Seatown, and various lands in and about the town of Swords, as forfeited by Bartholomew Russell, and granted to the see of Dublin. His claim was, however, postponed, he being a petitioner before the house of commons, but these lands were afterwards granted to the see.

In 1703 Dean Scardeville bequeathed a sum of money, for the support of a school in this parish for the children of poor Protestants. The charity was sought to be recovered in 1779 by bill in chancery, but the suit was abandoned. In 1719 Archdeacon Hewetson granted to the incumbent of Swords and his successors for ever, "all that and those the lands where the mill stands, together with the said mill, for the sole use and support of a schoolmaster licensed by the Archbishop of Dublin and his successors from time to time for this parish;" but neither has this endowment ever been so applied.

In a lease of the prebendal lands of Swords in 1721, there is a special reservation of the benefit of the chancel and of the tithes of 20 acres glebe land assigned to the vicar. There is a document of the year 1744 extant, defining the respective endowments of the prebendary and vicar of Swords, to which a map of the demesne lands is annexed.

In 1786 the act was passed, alluded to at "Malahide," for the extension of a navigable canal from that town through Swords to the river of Fieldstown.

In 1793 the Rev. James Verschoyle, afterwards Bishop or Killala, was the incumbent of Swords.

In this borough, of notorious fame in the annals of bribery and corruption, the right of election was at this time vested in the Protestant inhabitants six months resident previous to the election. A writer, under the name of "Falkland," thus humorously describes its political aspect in 1790.

"General Massey some time since cast a longing eye on this borough, which he considered as a common open to any occupant, and, to secure the command of it to himself, he began to take and build tenements within its precincts, in which he placed many veteran soldiers, who, having served under him in war, were firmly attached to their ancient leader. Mr. Beresford, the first commissioner of the revenue, who has a sharp look out for open places, had formed the same scheme with the General of securing this borough to himself; and a deluge of revenue officers was poured [285] forth from the Custom-house to overflow the place, as all the artificers of the new Custom-house had before been exported in the potato-boats of Dungarvan to storm that borough. The wary general took the alarm, and threatened his competitor, that, for every revenue officer appearing there, he would introduce two old soldiers, which somewhat cooled the first commissioner's usual ardour; thus the matter rests at present, but, whether the legions of the army, or the locusts of the revenue, will finally remain masters of the field, or whether the rival chiefs, from an impossibility of effecting all they wish, will be content to go off like the two kings of Brentford; smelling at one rose, or whether Mr. Hatch's interest will preponderate in the scale, time alone can clearly ascertain."

At the Union the compensation allowed for this borough (£15,000) was vested in trustees, (as it was of the class called potwalloping boroughs, and not private property,) for the purpose of educating and apprenticing the children of the humbler classes, without any religious distinction; and a handsome and commodious school-house was erected at the cost of £2,000. The school was opened in 1809, and is at present attended by about 300 children. The trustees, namely, the Chancellor, Archbishop of Dublin, Bishop of Kildare, Provost of Trinity College, Dean of St. Patrick's, and the Vicar of the parish, for the time being, were incorporated under the name of the Governors of the School at Swords," on the trust of applying the surplus interest, after paying all expenses of the school, in apprenticing the children, and any further surplus in premiums for the general encouragement of agriculture and manufactures. The salary of the superintendant is £70 per annum; that of the schoolmaster 50 guineas, with certain allowances for servants and coals. There are six boys and [286] six girls apprenticed out of it every year, and a suin of £12 paid with each apprentice. The physician to the dispensary has an allowance of £80 Irish per annum. Connected with this establishment and supported out of its funds, are a dispensary and coal-yard, for supplying with medicine, gratis, when wanted, and with coals at a reduced price, the parents of the poorest children, who have regularly attended the school. The other indigent inhabitants of Swords, upon proper recommendation, are entitled to the benefits both of the dispensary and of the coal-yard. There is also a national school here, which receives £15 annually from the Board of Education, the number of its pupils was 165 in 1834; and an infant school has been very recently established.

At the commencement of this century, a corn mill, a windmill, and a watermill existed here, while there was also a corn mill at Baiheary,

Public Officials

The only public officers, who have at any time exercised jurisdiction within the limits of this corporation, were a portreeve, and the seneschal of the manor of St. Sepulchre, which is also part of the possessions of the Archbishop of Dublin. The portreeve is appointed by the archbishop, and annually sworn at the Michaelmas court leet in Dublin, before the seneschal of St. Sepulchre. He has no salary, nor any emolument, except the annual profit of three acres of land lying near the town, for which he receives about £8 per annum. The portreeve formerly held a court here once in the" week, entertaining all claims within the manor, but otherwise, without limit. His authority, however, having been questioned, he has wholly discontinued to act, and the ordinary Petty Sessions court is now the only town jurisdiction.

Swords gives the title of viscount to the family of Molesworth.

The succession of members of parliament for this borough has been as follows :-

1613 William Blakeney and John Fitzsimons;
William Blakeney and Robert Carwell.
1639 John Taylor and George Blackney.
1661 Sir W. Tichborne and John Povey;
Sir W. Tichborne and Denny Muschampe.
1689 (King James's parliament) Francis Barnewall of Woodpark, county Meath, and Robert Russell of Drynham, Esqrs.
1692 Richard Forster and John Reading.
1695 John Reading and Thomas Ashe.
1703 Right Honourable Robert Molesworth and James Peppard.
1713 Right Honourable Robert Molesworth and Plunkett Plunkett.
1715 Plunkett Plnnkett and Richard Molesworth.
1721 Plunkett Plunkett and Honourahie Richard Molesworth.
1727 Honourable Bysse Molesworth and Edward Bolton.
1759 Honourahie Bysse Molesworth and Thomas Cothe.
1761 Thomas Cobbe and Hamilton Gorges.
1769 John H4tch and John Damer.
1776 Thomas Cobbe and Charles King.
1783 Charles Cobbe and John Hatch.
1790 John Claudius Beresford and Lieutenant-General Eyre Massey.
1797 Francis Synge and Charles Cobbe, Esqrs.
1798 Francis Synge, Esq. and Colonel Marcus Beresford. The former voted against the Union.

The succession of its prebendaries has been thus far ascertained:- [288]

1190 Walter Comyn.
---- Alanus
1227 Robert de Blond.
1247 Iterius de Brochard.
1302 William de Hothum.
1366 William of Wickham.
1375 Peter do Lacy.
1378 Robert Cruce.
1386 Walter Bruges.
1397 John Taaffe.
1411 John Tanner.
1423 Brande, Cardinal of Placentia.
1431 William Cruise.
---- ---- Blackton.
1468 Walter Kingdom.
1496 Richard Eustace.
1509 Edward St. Lawrence, alias Howth.
1535 Christopher Vesey.
---- Anthony Skeffington.
1535 John Derrick.
1554 Anthony St. Leger.
1555 Patrick Byrne.
1576 Edmund Enole.
1598 William Pratt.
1615 Richard Jones.
1642 Samuel Pullein.
1661 Roger Holmes.
1662 William Williams.
1664 John Rogan.
1675 Andrew Sall.
1682 Henry Scardeville.
1703 Thomas King.
1708 Robert Dougat.
1715 John Wynne.
1727 Hugh Wilson.
1735 John Espin.
1744 John Owen.
1761 Fowler Comings.
1783 Henry Lomax Walshe.
1834 William Magee.

Begin mention of Taylors

as having been so long identified with this locality, demand here some especial notice. Premising, that the escallops in their armorials afford faithful evidence, according to the interpretation of heraldry, of their achievements in the Holy Land; they early passed over from France, and established themselves in the sister kingdom. In 1183 Ralph Taylor was returned by the Bishop of Durham as holding certain lands at Stanhope, as was Aldelm Taylor by the Bishop of Winchester, as resident in Winchester; and other individuals of the name are traced at the same time flourishing in Norfolk, Suffolk, and Cambridgeshire.

About the year 1250 Gilbert Taylor was sheriff of the latter county. In the middle of the 13th century they had extended into Oxfordshire, Nottinghamshire, Shropshire, Lincolnshire, [289] Essex, Kent, Herefordshire, Huntingdonshire, Somersetshire, Wiltshire, Buckinghamshire, Northamptonshire, and Yorkshire. At Beverley, in the latter county more especially, was established Edward Taylor, chief falconer to Henry the Third.

In 1271 Isabel, relict of John Fitz Alan, impleaded Galfrid le Tayleur and Agatha his wife for a third part of the manor of Rodington, in Shropshire, and the Tayleurs of Buntingsdale, in that county, have flourished from that period in the highest respectability.

In 1273 Nicholas, the second son of the before-mentioned Edward Taylor of Beverley, passed into Ireland, where he had issue John, who had issue Walter, erroneously called William in some documents. In 1280 Alexander le Taylor had considerable grants of Jewish forfeitures in the city of York.

In 1289 Philip do Taylor granted to his son Walter in fee his possessions in Erde, in Kent, which lay partly within the king's barony, and partly within the liberties of the archbishop. The above Philip de Taylor was about the same time Sheriff of London. In 1293 Roger de Taylor is mentioned as a landed proprietor in Hertford~hire and styled "Dominus de Valencia." In 1295 Walter le Taylor was burgess for Thresk in the parliament at Westminster, as was William le Taylor for Truro in that held at York in 1298, in that of Westminster in 1300, and in that of Carlisle in 1307. In the commencement of the 14th century, John de Taylor is mentioned as of St. Alban's, another of the same appellation as burgess of Berwick, and branches of the family had taken root in Westmoreland, Surrey, Worcestershire, and Sussex. In 1301 Robert Taylor was member of parliament for Oakhampton, as was Thomas le Tailour for Wycomb. In 1302 Benedict le Tailour was representative for the borough of Crediton, and Robert le Tailour for Helstone in the parliament of Carlisle in 1307.

In 1309 John, the son of Thomas le Taylor, appears on record in connexion with the lands of Rathosbern in Ireland; and, in the following year, Thomas le Taillur was one of those summoned to attend the parliament of Kilkenny.

In 1811 Edmund Taylor was one of the two warders appointed and sworn to keep the keys of Aldgate during the disturbances [290] relative to Gaveston, while Hugo le Taylor was burgess for Ryegate, and William le Taylor for Carlisle in the parliament of London. In 1312 Geoffrey Taylor was knight of the shire for Hertfordshire. In 1313 Reginald le Taylor was member of parliament for Helstone, as was Alan le Tailor for Worcester in the Parliament of Westminster, and again in 1318 in that of York. In 1316 Ralph le Taillour was certified to be lord of the township of Hyde, near Blandford in Dorsetshire, and in 1321 William le Taillur was member of parliament for Shaftesbury.

In 1327 Richard le Tuyt had license to enfeoff William le Taylor, clerk, of the manors of Killalwyn, Castlecot, and Fithenagh, in the county Meath, which were held of the king in capite; while in 1342, and the four subsequent years, John Taylor was one of the high bailiffs of the city of Dublin, and in 1358 was its provost, as the chief magistrate was then called. In 1348 William, the son of John Taillour of Staniford Bridge, was seised of various lands in Yorkshire, which he held as of the manor of Pontefract. The Taillour family were also at this time landed proprietors in Cumberland and Lancashire, in addition to their former locations.

In 1376 the abbot of the house of the Blessed Virgin of Dundraynan in Galway, on his leaving Ireland, had liberty to appoint as his attorney, during his absence, Robert Loughborough and Adam Taylor. The same Adam was subsequently one of the attorneys for the parson of Callan on a similar occasion. In 1382 Thomas Taillor, clerk, was constituted a baron of the Exchequer in Ireland, and in 1386 another Thomas Taillor had license, for himself and his issue, to enjoy the benefit of the law of England, and yet another of the same name was appointed chief remembrancer of the Exchequer in this country. In 1386 Thomas Taylor was constituted treasurer of the liberties or Kilkenny, and deputy seneschal thereof.

In 1387 Walter Taylor of Swords, son of the John Taylor mentioned at the year 1273, had license and authority from Robert de Vere, Marquis of Dublin, to purchase fish of all kind in every harbour of the county Dublin, and to export same for sale in Chester or Liverpool. This Walter was also seised of lands in Drogheda, and became the purchaser of Rathfeigh in the [291] county Meath from the Bernard family. His eldest son and heir was Alexander Taylor of Swords, of whom hereafter. In the same year, Henry Taillour is mentioned as of the county Kilkenny. In 13S0, William Taylor was Vicar of Pierstown Laundy. In 1394 the executor of John Taylor deceased received from the treasury, a sum of £59 due of old by King Edward the Third to Thomas Minot, Archbishop of Dublin, whose claim had by various assignments passed to said John Taylor. In 1399 the Taylors were established in the counties of Carlow and Kildare, and in the same and the following year (1400), Richard Taylor was one of the high bailiffs of Dublin.

In 1400 Philip Taillour of Bristol was one of those, to whom the king granted the extraordinary license, "that they, with as many men-at-arms as they shall choose to have and provide at their own expenses, may take their course for and pass over to our said realm of Ireland in four ships, and there make war against the rebels and enemies of us, being in the town of Galway, which in times past was in our ligeance and obedience, until now of late that by one Sir William Burgh, knight, by the assent and treason of certain traitors therein, the said town was taken in war, and also, the islands of Arran, which always be full of gallies, to ensnare, capture, and plunder our liege English; to the end and effect that if the aforesaid Philip Taillour, &c., shall be able by force and armed power to obtain and take the town and islands aforesaid, they may have, hold, and inhabit the same town and islands, taking to their own us and profit all and singular the property of the aforesaid rebels and enemies of us, and all that which they shall be able so to obtain and take; the rights, rents, revenues, services, and other monies whatsoever to our royal prerogative there pertaining, always saved unto us. Saving also the right of the son and heir of Roger le Mortimer; late Earl of March being within age and in our wardship, c."

In 1403 John Taylor is mentioned as of Boystown in the county Kildare, while in the same year, Alexander Taylor of Swords was one of three, whom the king assigned to collect a subsidy within the Crosslands of Dublin. This Alexander was the son of Walter as before-mentioned, and intermarried with Agnes, the daughter of William Swinock or Simcock, by whom he acquired [292] additional property in Drogheda. He seems to have been the purchaser of the inheritance at Swords, and to have built a mansion house in that town. His eldest son and heir, John Taylor, married Margaret daughter of Thomas Brailes, by whom he had issue John Taylor, married to Catherine, daughter of ---- Hamlin of Smithstown. The children of this last marriage were, Agnes Taylor, married to Thomas de la Field of Fieldstown, and James Taylor, who, by his first wife Anne, daughter of ---- Segrave of Killeglan, had issue Richard Taylor of Swords, hereafter mentioned, and Robert Taylor, from whom descended the Taylors of Dublin, aldermen and merchants of that city. James Taylor's second wife was Agnes Warren, by whom he had also issue. In 1406 the king conferred the dignity of Archdeacon of Ossory on Adam Taylor. In 1412 and the two following years, as also in 1422, Stephen Taylor was one of the high bailiffs of the city of Dublin.

In 1415 Edmund Taylor was one of the knights in the retinue of the Earl of Oxford at the battle of Agincourt. In 1520 in the royal appointment for the progress to Canterbury, and thence to Calais and Guisnes, to meet the French king, Doctor Taylor was one of 10 attendant chaplains, to each of whom six servants and four horses were allowed. The suite of Cardinal Wolsey alone, on this occasion, comprised 12 chaplains, 50 gentlemen, 238 servants, and 150 horses.

In 1539 Patrick Taylor was seised of Ballydowd near Lucan, which, having been afterwards the seat of Sir Edmond Sexton Perry, took the name of Edmundsbury, and is now the residence of Mr. Needham. In 1543 Richard Taylor of Swords, son of the before mentioned James Taylor, Was joined in commission with said Patrick, to try and decide what temporal and spiritual possessions became, by the dissolution of monasteries, vested in the crown within the county of Dublin. He married Elizabeth Barnewall, daughter of Robert Barnewall of Riverstown, by whom he had issue four daughters, the eldest of whom, Catherine, was first married to Christopher de la Hoyde, Esq., Recorder of Drogheda, and on his decease to Patrick, fourth Baron of Trimlestown. Richard had also a son, Robert Taylor of Swords, hereafter mentioned.

In 1553 Dr. John Taylor, Bishop of Lincoln, was one of the English prelates deprived by Queen Mary. Amongst those English gentlemen, who compounded for their estates during the Commonwealth, were John Taylor of Moscroft in Yorkshire, Richard Taylor of Ernley in Sussex, John Taylor of Brimstage in Cheshire, John Taylor of Sandal in Yorkshire, John Taylor of Ichenor in Sussex, William Taylor and Richard Taylor of Clapham in Bedfordshire, William Taylor of London, then late of Windsor, Thomas Taylor of Oldham of Oclepichard in Herefordshire, John Taylor of Oldham in Lancashire, John Taylor of York, merchant, and John Taylor of Todcaster in Yorkshire. In 1557 John Taylor, clerk, was constituted Master of the Rolls in England, and was afterwards Chancellor.

In 1558 Robert Taylor, the son and heir of the afore mentioned Richard of Swords, was seised of Ballyowen in the county Dublin. He married Alice, daughter of Thomas Fitz Simons of Dublin, and had issue by her George Taylor his heir, and other children. George was Recorder of Dublin, and in the Irish parliament of 1585 was one of its representatives. In 1586 Francis Taylor was one of the sheriffs of the city of Dublin.

About this time flourished in England, Doctor Thomas Taylor, Fellow of Christ's College, a zealous puritan divine of the Elizabethean age. In 1595 Francis Taylor was Mayor of Dublin, and at the same time, Mr. Joseph Taylor, the friend of Philip Massinger, appeared as the original actor of Hamlet, instructed by Shakspeare himself. He performed the part for upwards of 45 years, was master of the revels to Charles the First, died in the year 1653, and was buried at Richmond.

In 1602 Thomas Taylor was settled at Rigmore in Sussex, and from him has descended the line of the Marquis of Headfort, his grandson Thomas having in the year 1653, come into Ireland with the celebrated Sir William Petty, with whom he had contracted the strictest friendship. They conjointly undertook and perfected the Down Survey, although the maps were published in Sir William Petty's name only. In 1660 he disposed of his estates in England, and purchased in Ireland the town and townlands of Kells, and others of great extent in the county Meath. After the restoration of King Charles the Second, he was appointed a commissioner of the Court of Claims, and was [294] also a commissioner of that held for persons transported into Connaught and Clare in 1675. His only daughter married Sir Nicholas Acheson, ancestor to Viscount Gosford. His son, rhomas Taylor, was created a baronet of Ireland in 1704, and the grandson of this Sir Thomas was, in 1747, advanced to the peerage by the title of Baron Headfort of Headfort, and created Earl of Bective in 1766, as was his son, Marquis of Headfort, in 1800.

In 1603 the before-mentioned George Taylor of Swords was a party in a recovery suffered of the Caddell estates in this county. He died in 1620, seised, as mentioned at "Swords," and at "Newcastle." His eldest son and heir, by his first wife Johanna Jans, was Michael Taylor, who, at the time of said George's decease, was aged 36, and married to the daughter of ---- Russell of Drynham, by whom he had issue John Taylor his heir, and four other sons. In 1618 John Taylor was one of the English undertakers or settlers in the county of Cavan, and had assigned to him 1500a., called Aghieduff, with a castle and bawn therein

In 1629 Francis Taylor, of the line of the before-mentioned Robert, was one of the aldermen of Dublin; while in the parliament of 1639 John Taylor, the heir of Michael of Swords, was one of the representatives of that borough. He married Mary the daughter of John Fagan of Feltrim, by whom he had issue John Taylor his heir, and two other sons. John, the elder, sustained the confiscations and losses mentioned at Swords; and the sufferings of his son John the younger, under these privations, and his resistance to being transplanted into Connaught up to 1659, when he obtained a decree confirmatory of his old estate, are detailed in an interesting manuscript still preserved by the family. At the court of claims, consequent upon the forfeitures of this period, Captain Marmaduke Taylor was a claimant for lands in the county of Cork, Nathaniel Taylor in the counties of Cork and Tipperary, Thomas Taylor in Cork, the Queen's County, and Meath, Timothy Taylor in the King's County, and Walter Taylor in the county of Galway.

In the English parliament of 1641 Mr. Taylor, a barrister and representative for Windsor, was impeached for saying, in disparagement of the house, in reference to the Earl of Strafford's death, that "they had committed murder with the sword of justice, [295] and that he would not for a world have so much blood lie on his consscience, as did on theirs for that sentence;" which words being proved against him, he was expelled the house and voted incapable of ever being a member. He was also committed to the Tower during pleasure.

At the surrender of Arundel Castle, Captain Thomas Taylor was one of the officers taken prisoner by Sir William Waller. In 1652 Captains Taylor and Peacock, in two English frigates, engaged two Dutch men-of-war on the coast of Flanders, took one and caused the other to be stranded. In 1654 died John Taylor, the water poet, of whom Pope says:-

"Taylor, their better Charon, lends am oar,
Once swan of Thames, though now he sings no more."

He was a remarkable instance of uneducated genius, as himself notes-

"I must confess I do want eloquence,
And never scarce did learn my accidence;
For having got from possum to posset,
I there was gravelled, could no farther get.'

In 1657 Nicholas Taylor, brother of the aforesaid John the elder, was found, on a parliamentary survey, seised of 160a. in Swords. His nephew, John the younger heir of John the elder, married the daughter of ---- Moore of Ballina, by whom he had issue Michael Taylor his heir and other children.

In 1660 Doctor Jeremy Taylor was promoted to the sees of Down and Connor, was soon afterward made vice-chancellor of Trinity College, Dublin, for its special regulation, and had also the administration of the bishopric of Dromore conferred upon him.

In 1680 John Taylor the younger, before mentioned, died seised in tail male of the family estates in Swords, Marshalstown, Rathcoole, Greenock, &c., as did has eldest son, Michael Taylor, without issue male in 1684 leaving John Taylor his brother and heir, who subsequently married Alice, daughter of ---- Browne of Clongowes-Wood, his first wife, by whom he had one daughter. By his second wife, Helen, daughter of Richard Fagan of [296] Feltrim, he had John Taylor his heir, and eight other children. This John also married twice. By his first wife, Miss Cusack of Rathaldron, he had a daughter; by his second, Catherine Everard of Randalstown, he had Christopher his heir, George who died unmarried, and Penelope married to Edward Mapother of Kilteevan. Christopher married Ellen, daughter of John Caulfield, by whom he had 10 children, of whom James Joseph Taylor is now the surviving heir, being of the 17th generation from the above-mentioned Edward Taylor of Beverley. Jane Elizabeth Taylor, his sister, is married to Josiah Forster, Esq., formerly of St. Croix in the West Indies, by whom she has issue, James Fitz Eustace Forster.

In 1687 died Silas Taylor, an antiquary of much ability, born at Harley in Shropshire.

Amongst those attainted in King James's parliament, were Arthur Taylor of the county Tipperary, and Joseph Taylor of the county Kerry, while John Taylor was one of the burgesses in the new charter then granted to Swords. In 1692 Robert Taylor was one of the members of parliament for the borough of Askeaton.

In 1703 that admirable scholar, the Rev. John Taylor, was born in Shrewsbury, where he received the early part of his education. He was afterwards chancellor of Lincoln, and anther of various works.

In 1716 was born in Ireland George Taylor, the son of a respectable clergyman, who afterwards emigrated to America, and, having by prudent management and great industry amassed a large fortune, purchased a considerable estate there in the county of Northampton, which he represented in the provincial assembly that met at Philadelphia in 1764, and in 1776 he was one of those who signed the memorable declaration of American independence. About the commencement of this century another branch of the family settled in Galway, of which town Walter Taylor was mayor in 1731, Anthony Taylor sheriff in 1735, and Thomas Taylor mayor in 1768.

In 1727 William Taylor was sheriff of Derbyshire, and in 1731 died Doctor Brook Taylor, a native of Edmonton, in Middlesex, the intimate friend of Sir Isaac Newton, a very able mathematician, [297] and author of many scientific works. In 1766 died John Taylor, a learned critic and philologist, born at Shrewsbury, and about the same time died Doctor John Taylor, a learned dissenting teacher, born near Lancaster.

In 1788 died Sir Robert Taylor, an eminent architect, and above all that of his own fortune. When he began life, he said he was not worth 18 pence, and the accumulation of his professional labours amounted at the time of his decease to £180,000. There is a handsome monument to his memory in Westminster Abbey. In the same year appeared a very remarkable work on the Platonic doctrine, from the pen of Mr. Thomas Taylor, the singular. scope of which may be conjectured from the introductory avowal that "the religion of the heathens has, indeed, for many centuries been the object of ridicule and contempt, yet the author of the present work is not ashamed to own, that he is a perfect convert to it in every particular, so far as it was understood and illustrated by the Pythagoric and Platonic philosophers."

In 1809 Lieutenant Taylour of the Tigris commanded a hazardous boat expedition in the Bay of Rosas, in which he had such signal success as to capture or burn all the vessels, and take or destroy the supplies destined for the French army in Spain. In 1813 Captain Taylor of the Sparrow took possession of the Castle of Castro, on the Spanish shore of the Mediterranean, and in the same year Captain B. W. Taylor of the Apollo took the islands of Augusta and Carzolo, in the Mediterranean, and in the following year that of Paso, in the Adriatic.

Other records of this family, in connexion with the county of Dublin, are scattered through this work, and may be traced by the General Index.

Near Swords is Seatown, formerly an estate of the Russell family, and recognised as such in the Act of Settlement. It is now the residence of Mr. Arthur Balheary, the ancient fee of the Lords Kingsland, is also in the vicinity, and has a Roman Catholic chapel of ease, from which a remarkably straight and well shaded road leads to Lispobel and Rollestown. At [298] about a mile from Swords, are the uninteresting ruins of a chapel; presenting a remarkably large, unroofed, square apartment, with broad low-windows slightly carved, but utterly without tombs or any traces of religious reverence.

It was more anciently called Glassmore, and, according to the calendary of Cashel is memorable for the martyrdom of St. Cronan and all his monks, by a band of pirates in the commencement of the seventh century. [Camden's Britannian, vol. iii. p. 561.] He is styled abbot and martyr, and his festival is kept on the 10th of February. Other anthorities refer this event to a Glassmore in Munster. [See Colgan's Acta Sanctorum, p. 303] St. At. Angus thus eulogises this holy man:- "Stella lucida, propago felix, thesaurus aureus praefulgidus et eximius, Cronanus sanctus absque macula, sol lucidus Glasmorensis." Its tithes belonged to the petit canons of St. Patrick, and accordingly in 1759 the tithes of Taylor's land, Hilltown, Moortown, &c. "commonly called and reputed to be the petty canons' and choristers' tithes;" likewise all the tithes, great and small, of a certain part of the lands of Moortown were leased to Robert Wilson for 21 years at £20 per annum.

This townland contains about one 180 acres, was the fee of Lord Trimlestown, and is now that of Mr. Cusack.

Leaving Swords, and continuing the northern road, the handsome seat of Mr. Baker appears at left, with a pretty river flowing through it in graceful windings and over several artificial falls. Thence to the village of [299]the ancient estate of the Barnewalls, Lords Trimlestown, and Barons of Turvey.

A straight avenue, still scantily sentinelled with the survivors of a forest, conducts by the margin of a little stream to the family mansion, a plain but venerable building surrounded by some fine old trees. In it are some family portraits and other paintings. On this townland was formerly an excellent corn mill, of which now scarcely a trace remains. It is also observable that iron appears to manifest its presence here in a coarse reddish earth.

In 1240 the prioress of Grany granted to Master Richard de St. Martin the church of Turvey, alias Dunabate, for his natural life, at the annual rent of £10, he paying also in the name of the prioress a mark annually to the church of Swords. [Lib. "Crede Mihi," fo. 103.]

In 1885 Hugh Bermingham was appointed seneschal of the manors and lordships of Turvey, Rush, Corduff, and Ballyscadan, with power to demise the same to farmers, and to remove such as he pleased, and set the lands to others, to appoint receivers, and do all other things for the good govemment thereof, which he should deem expedient. [Rot. Pat. in Canc. Hib.] The manor comprised the denominations of Claffardstown Danyestown, &c.

In 1461 the king granted to Sir William Wellesley the office of chief butler of Ireland, with the manors of Turvey, Balscaddan and Rush, and other manors, for his life, at the service of a red rose. The grant recites that the same had belonged to James Botiller, late Earl of Wiltshire. [Ib.]

By inquisition of 1515 Sir Thomas Butler, seventh Earl of Ormond, was found to have died seised of the manors of Lusk, Turvey, Rush, and Balscaddan.

[300] In 1582, when King Henry notified that for certain arduous causes, with the consent of his lieutenant and the lords spiritual and temporal and council, he had determined to unfurl and display his banner at the hill of Owenstown, in the county of Dublin, and summonses and distringases were issued against all those absent, who were bound to render scutage on such an occasion, amongst these, process issued from the Exchequer to the Earl of Ossory, on account of his manor of Turvey.

In 1556 Thomas Earl of Ormond granted this manor and its seneschalship to Sir Christopher Barnewall, a lawyer of considerable eminence, who was high sheriff of the county of Dublin in 1560, and died here in 1575. Turvey has since constituted a principal seat of his family, the present mansion-house having been erected by him, as appears by the arms and inscription over the west gate, "The arms of Sir Christopher Barnewall and Dane Marion Sherle, alias Churley, who made this house in anno 1565.

In 1645 Nicholas Barnewall was created Baron of Turvey and Viscount Barnewall of Kingsland.

In 1658 Cromwell directed by his letter that Lord Kingsland should have a lease of his house at Turvey, and £500 per annum set apart for him, which was done accordingly.

In 1685 Henry Lord Viscount Kingsland passed patent for Turvey and its subdenominations, 432 acres, and the mill thereto belonging, the towns and lands of Ballawley, Ballystroan, part of Hodgestown, Fieldstown, with the fair, &c. the outlands of Swords, with part of the town of Swords in several parcels, 74 acres, the mill and mill race of Killossery, the town and lands of Grace Dieu, with the tithes thereof, &c., Drishogue 222 acres, Grange of Ballyboghill 395 acres, &c., Skiddow and Ballgeeth 360 acres, Rob's-Wall 115 acres, coneyburrow of Portmarnack and the mill thereunto belonging 336A. Ir. &c., also the tithes of the town and lands of Rob's-Wall, the manor, tow, lands and preceptory of Kilmainhambeg, &c.

In this demesne the writer of these pages witnessed the felling of a noble ancient tree, and surely there is truth in those philosophers who found "tongues in [301] trees.', As this beauty of the wood, with all her leafy honours round her, tottered and groaned upon her amputated roots, it seemed as if the Hamadryad was deeply complaining from her sylvan temple. With the enthusiasm of the ambassador, whom Livy pourtrays so affected as by the presiding intelligence of an oak of centuries, it was almost the first impulse to arrest the arm of the woodcutter, and certainly the confirmation of his deforming work could not be witnessed. In a remoter glade, and under the fantastic but richly furnished branches of a beech, as umbrageous as Tityrus himself could have enjoyed, it was more congenial to muse upon the achievements of the noble name, on which Turvey has the honour of conferring one title.

Ch. 2. Barnewall.