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Major branches of R1b1a2

The purpose of this page is NOT to be exhaustively thorough, but to assist the overwhelming majority of Taylor project R1b members understand what their haplogroup means. This is not an scientifically comprehensive treatment of the R1b1a2 tree, but a simplified explanation. To compile it, we have collated information from a variety sources as to phylogeny, origin, history and present frequencies.

R1b1a2 (R-M269) is prevalent in western Europe

R1b is the most common Y-chromosome haplogroup in the Taylor Family Genes project and the R1b1a2 (R-M269) subclade represents almost 70% of project members who've tested yDNA. This is due to Taylor being a name of English origin.

Of all R1b men in the Taylor project with FTDNA-confirmed or -predicted haplogroups, 98% are R1b1a2 (R-M269); the remaining 2% are simply R1b, but may -- or may not -- be R1b1a2. 25% of the R1b1a2 have tested for downstream SNPs and all so tested have been found to be in the R1b1a2a1a (R-P310) subclade.

R1b1a2 is also the predominant subclade in western Europe. See http://www.isogg.org/wiki/Haplogroup_R1b_(Y-DNA).

Genetic Roots

This discussion of the roots of R1b1a2a1a relies on the ISOGG tree as of 1 May 2013. The diagram on the right shows the development of R1b (R-M343) into R1b1a2 (R-M269) and then into R1b1a2a1a (R-P310).

R1b1a2: is denoted by L265/PF6431, M269, M520, PF6485/S3, PF6399/S10, S13, S17 -- thought to have originated 4 to 10 kya, perhaps in Eurasia or the Rhine River basin. Today, R1b1a2 can be found all over western Europe.

Multiple SNPs separated by commas are different but equivalent; they occur in the same place on the phylogenetic tree. Those separated by slashes (/) are the same but with multiple names,
R1b1a2a is denoted by L23/PF6534/S141, L49.1/S349, L150.1/PF6274.1
• • R1b1a2a1 is denoted by L51/M412/PF6536/S167
• • • R1b1a2a1a is denoted by L11/PF6539/S127, L52/PF6541, L151/PF6542, P310/PF6546/S129, P311/S128 -- the dominant subclade of R1b in Europe

These SNPs are additive; having P310 means also having L51, L150, L23 and M269 as well. So, >98% of R1b Taylor Family Genes members are presumably M269+ L23+ L150+ L51+ and P310+.

Ethnic Roots

That R1b1a2 is so common among Taylors is owed to the many Bronze Age (and subsequent) migrations to the British Isles. The original peoples, who had lived there since before the land bridge with continental Europe was flooded with sea water, were of different and older haplogroups. These original people seem to have been largely swept away in the genetic picture of the islands.

Among the earliest of the immigrants were Celts, an ethno-linguistic group of tribal societies in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had a similar culture. By 450 BC, they'd spread from their base in Austria to the British Isles. By 275 BC, they'd come to dominate much of central and southern Europe, with outposts in Turkey and Russia.

Celtic tribes of England:

The Romans came before 43 AD and ruled for almost four centuries, bringing with them the legions from around the Empire. Within this genetic stew were undoubtedly at least some men of the R1b1a2 haplogroup who left their mark.

Near the end of their sway in Britannia, the Romans brought in Germanic mercenaries: Angles, Jutes and Saxons -- also largely R1b1a2. As and after the Romans left in 410 AD, these people streamed in a a greater rates. Through a series of struggles with the Celts, they gained control of much of the country and left their marks in place names:

In the 9th century, Norse (who began raiding the British Isles in 793 AD) started settling and came to dominate the northern part of England. Genetically, these Norse were a mixed bag of haplogroups: I, R1a and R1b.

The 11th century brought the Norman Conquest of England. Some of them too were R-M269

Subclades of R1b1a2a1a (R-P310)

For simplicity, we'll drop the "R1b1a2" prefix in favor of two leading dots. Slashes between SNP names indicate alternate names for the same SNP; tests from FTDNA are in boldface.

Two branches of ..a1a (R-P310) have been found; the downstream SNPS are U106 and P312.

STR Predictors

STR (short-tandem repeats) markers are not definitive for haplogroup and subclade determination; only SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) results are . However, STRs do have a predictive value. Four have been identified for discriminating between U106 and P312.

DYS492 66 >=13 <=12 Best predictor, 95% confidence
DYS390   2 23 24  
DYS576 32 17 18  
CDYa 34 37 36 Poor for prediction,
a rapidly-mutating marker

Source: ISOGG Wiki

SNP Testing Strategy

The question of which SNPs to test for can be very confusing. Many test for SNPs they could not possibly have, due to absence of an upstream SNP. We recommend this strategy for R1b men in Taylor Family Genes.

  1. Test for M269 to confirm haplogroup prediction of R1b1a2.
  2. Test for P310 (or L11, L151, P311 or L52) to confirm R1b1a2a1a.
  3. If P310+, test for both U106 and P312
  4. Test for downstream SNPs:
    1. If U106+, there are nine subclades:
      • U198, P107, L1, L148, L6, P89.2, L217, L257, L325 and L48
        (L48 can be further broken down into L47, L148 and L188.)
    2. If P312+, there are five subclades
      • M65, M153, U152, L21, and L176.2
        (U152: M126, M160, L2 & L4)
        (L21: M37, M222, P66, L96, L195&L144, L159.2, L193, L226 & P314.2)
        (L176.2: SRY2627 & L165)

Revised: 16 Apr 2014