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Haplogroup Timeline

The table below summarizes emergence of haplogroups found within the Taylor FamilY: Genes project, within the context of human development. The purpose is to correlate geological, meteorological, paleontological, archeological, linguistic, historical and genetic evidence to solve the puzzle of how we got to this point.

Y: Haplogroupsmt: Haplogroups
Tree of Y Haplogroups
Tree of mt haplogroups detail of L3 branch


Time * Description Haplo-
Place Most
@ 1500 AD
65 Mya Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event eradicates half of all animal species, including dinosaurs (except bird ancestors) N/A Global over
60/56? Mya First primates, Cenozoic Era N/A ? extinct
20/15 Mya First bipedal primates, Sahelanthropus tchadensis or Orrorin tugenensis. Theory: bipedalism = adaptation to climate change -- fewer trees, more grasslands _ Africa? extinct
7/5 Mya Common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees _ Africa extinct
5.3-2.6 Mya Pliocene Epoch, temps 2-3°C warmer and seas 25 meters higher than present _ Global over
2.6-1.8 Mya Gelasian Age (AKA, Praetiglian & Tiglian stages) of Pleistocene Epoch; connection between Atlantic & Pacific Oceans severed at Panama, disrupting currents; northern hemisphere ice sheets grow; cold-water mollusks in Mediterranean _ Global over
2.3-1.4 Mya Homo habilis, first human genus? Uses stone tools, beginning Paleolithic Age _ Kenya extinct
1.8-0.78 Mya Calabrian Age of Pleistocene Epoch; magnetic pole reverses at beginning; ice age and global drying _ Global over
1.8-0.14 Mya Homo erectus spreads to east Asia & southern Europe _ Africa extinct
1.3?-0.2 Mya Homo heidelbergensis, ancestor of both modern humans & Neanderthals; left footprints in Italy; large brain, 6 feet tall _ Africa extinct
781-126 kya Ionian (Middle) Age of Pleistocene Epoch; wide fluctuations in climate and CO2 levels; mega-fauna extinctions begin _ Global over
600 - 30
Homo neanderthalensis (Neanderthal man) spreads from Africa to western Europe through Mongolia _ Eurasia? extinct
478 - 424 kya Glacial period known as MIS 12, Mindel, Pre-Illinoian, Elsterian, Anglian or Río Llico _ Global _
380 kya Oldest complete hunting weapons found, 3 wooden javelins. Nean-derthal? Germany _
424 - 374 kya Interglacial period known as MIS 11, Mindel-Riss, Pre-Illinoian, Holstein or Hoxnian   Global? _
350? kya Homo sapiens sapiens, "anatomicallY: modern humans" (us) emerge, a subspecies of the species which included Neanderthals and Denisovans. Apparent interbreeding. Y: A00?
mt: L?
Africa Global
581/237 (338) kya Y- Adam, "father" of all living humans; Ionian stage of Pleistocene, repeated glaciations Y: A00? C Africa Africa
200/160 kya Earliest remains of anatomicallY: modern humans; theY: fished & used red ochre so possiblY: "behaviorallY: modern" ? Ethiopia ?
200 - 130 kya Glacial period known as MIS 6, Riss, Illinoian, Saalian, Wolstonian (Gipping) or Santa María _ Global _
150+/-70 kya Mitochondrial Eve, "mother" of all living humans; her mitochondrial haplogroup is L; now 5% of Taylors mt: L? E Africa ?
142 +/-
Y hg A emerges; now 0.01% of Taylors Y: A
(X BT)
Africa Africa
141+/-33 kya mtDNA hg L1 emerges, "mother" of non-African haplogroups (No Taylor project participants are L1) mt: L1 C Africa C. & W. Africa
130-115 kya First part of glacial period known as MIS 5a-d, Würm, Wisconsin, Weichselian (Vistulian), Devensian or Llanquihue _ Global _
126-13.7 kya Tarantian Age of Pleistocene Epoch, many glaciations, mega-fauna extinctions, extinction of all but one human species _ Global Global
124-119 kya Interglacial period known as MIS 5e, Riss-Würm, Sangamonia, Eemian, Ipswichian, Valdivia _ Global _
125/60 kya Modern humans begin migration out of Africa (dates differ) Y: A?
mt: L?
_ _
~100 kya Modern humans' fish & seafood in diet thought to increase brain capacity _ ? Global
111/80 kya mt: Hg L2 emerges from L1-6; now 1% of Taylors mt: L2 E or W Africa Africa
104/80 kya mt: Hg L3 emerges from L3'4; expands ~70 kya; now 4% of Taylors mt: L3 E Africa Eurasia
94-12 kya Homo floresiensis (Flores Man, "hobbit") stood 3'5" _ Indonesia extinct
71-29 kya Second part of glacial period known as MIS 2-4, Würm, Wisconsin, Weichselian (Vistulian), Devensian or Llanquihue _ Global  
Mount Toba super-volcano erupts; 6-10 year world-wide winter; population bottleneck. World AMH population reduced from ~25,000 to 3,000/10,000. all then existing Indonesia, global effects over
~71 kya mt: Hg N emerges from L3; now 1% of Taylors mt: N Asia, E. Africa Many
~70 kya Y: Hg BT (B-M42) emerges from A2 Y: BT Africa  
~70 kya mt: Hg L3 expands out of Africa mt: L3 Africa Europe, Asia, Americas
~68 kya Y: Hg CT (CT-M168) emerges from BT.
"Y- Noah"?
Y: CT E Africa extinct?
66 +/-14 kya mt: Hg R  emerges from N mt: R Asia SW Asia
65/60 kya Y: Hg B (B-M60) emerges from BT Y: B Africa? Africa, Arabia, Eurasia
75/70? kya Y: Hg CF () emerges from CT Y: CF SW Asia extinct
75/70? kya Y: Hg C (C-M139) emerges from CF Y: C Asia  
68/59 kya Y: Hg DE emerges from CT Y: DE Africa, Asia Africa
~60 kya mt: Hg C emerges from split in CZ; now 2% of Taylors mt: C C Asia Siberia, Americas
~60 kya mt: Hg M emerges from L3 mt: M S Asia, Africa? Asia
60/50 kya Y: Hg D emerges from DE; maY: represent migration from Arabia to SE Asia Y: D Asia E Asia
~55 kya mt: Hg U emerges from R; now 12% of Taylors mt: U Eurasia? Eurasia, W/S Asia, N Africa, Europe
56/39 kya Y: Hg F emerges from CF Y: F S/SW Asia, M East ?
Y: Hg E emerges from DE; now 5% of Taylors Y: E E Africa or Asia Africa,
Middle East,
50 kya Upper (Late) Paleolithic begins; use of fire; language; latest hypothesized date for behavioral modernity; elements include finely-made tools, fishing, cooking, long-distance exchange between groups, pigment & jewelry, figurative art, game playing, music & dance, burial _ Africa ?
50 kya Evidence of cave dwellers; mega fauna extinctions; Sahara is wet and fertile _ Iraq, N Africa ?
~50 kya mt: Hg B  emerges from R mt: B E. Asia? China, SE Asia
~50 kya mt: Hg D emerges from M; now 0.4% of Taylors mt: D E Asia NE Asia, Americas
~50 kya mt: Hg P  emerges from R mt: P SE Asia Australia, Melanesia
~45 kya mt: Hg J  emerges from JT (from R); now 8% of Taylors mt: J Caucasus, Eurasia Near East, Europe
45-35 kya Aurignacian culture, first modern humans  in Europe? ? S, C, E Europe extinct
45/43 kya Cro-Magnon colonization of Europe; stone-knapping, flutes, cave paintings Y: C, F or IJ? S Europe extinct
~43 kya mt: Hg F  emerges from R9 mt: F Asia E & SE Asia
41 kya Lachamp Event, magnetic pole reversal; lasts 440 years; magnetic field strength 25% in reversal, ~5% in transition lasting 250 years. Increased radiation? all then existing Global over
? -41 kya Denisovans in east Asia; interbred with Neanderthals & modern humans _ Asia extinct
40+/-10 kya mt: Hg A emerges from N; now 1% of Taylors mt: A Asia Americas,
E. Asia
40/30 kya Neanderthal extinction in Europe _ Europe extinct
40 kya Stone & bone tools + cave paintings in Europe; Y: E, J?
mt: ?
Europe ?
40 kya Or, 60/65 kya, migration to Australia requires sailing craft Y: C, F, K, O Asia Australia
45/25 kya Y: Hg H emerges from HIJK Y: H India? India
~37 kya World population about 3 million people all Global _
37.5+/-2.5 kya Y: Hg IJ emerges from F-L15; descendants are I & J Y: IJ SW Asia ?
35+/-10 kya Y: Hg J emerges as a split in IJ; spreads west & east; responsible for inventing agriculture, ushering in Neolithic; now 3% of Taylors Y: J Fertile Crescent,  ? Arabia, Middle East
34+/-7 kya Y: Hg O emerges in NO split; now 0.1% of Taylors Y: O (O-M175) SE or E Asia E & SE Asia
34-22 kya Gravettian culture succeeded Aurignacian, spread through southern Europe E, F, J? Bulgarian
S Ukraine
~30 kya mt: X emerges from N; now 2% of Taylors mt: X W Asia Turkey, NE Canada
30? kya Y: Hg G emerges from F; it is present in Europe bY: 30 kya; now 3% of Taylors Y: G Levant Europe, S W & C Asia, N Africa
29 +/-5 kya Y: Hg R* emerges from P, Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE)? Now 77% of Taylors (R1a + R1b) Y: R* (R-M207) C Asia India & west
27.5+/-2.5 kya Y: Hg I emerges as a split in IJ; now 15% of Taylors. Modern humans thrive in cold Europe; Neanderthals go extinct Y: I Europe No. & SE Europe
27.5+/-2.5 kya mt: Hg HV  emerges from R0; now 3% of Taylors mt: HV Eurasia, Caucasus W Asia, S & E Europe
25+/-5 kya mt: Hg T  emerges from JT; now 12% of Taylors mt: T Fertile Crescent Baltic
~25 kya Oldest human settlement structures found _ Moravia. Czech Rep. _
~24 kya Age of specimen for ANE ghost population; one of three main contributors to European DNA Y: R*,
mt: U5
Siberia extinct
~24 kya mt: Hg W  emerges from N2; now 3% of Taylors mt: W W Asia Europe, W & S Asia
22.5+/-2.5 kya mt: Hg H  emerges from HV; now 41% of native Europeans are H, 33% of Taylors; model for Cambridge Reference Sequence as H2a2a; mt: H SW Asia Europe
22+/-10 kya mt: Hg Y:  emerges from N9 mt: Y E Asia? Kamchatka, Sea of Okhost
21+/-4 kya mt: Hg I  emerges from N1e'I; now 4% of Taylors mt: I W. Asia E. Africa, Europe, W & S Asia
20/25 kya Y: Hg N emerges from NO split; now 0.01% of Taylors Y: N E Asia Eurasia, esp. Siberia
20 kya Mesolithic (middle stone) Age begins; oldest potterY: vessels (in China) ? China extinct
20-9.5 kya Mesolithic Age in Levant ? M East extinct
19.5+/-2.5 kya Y: Hg Q emerges from P; some Q descendants cross Bering land bridge to Americas; now 0.3% of Taylors Y: Q Siberia? Americas, Asia
<18.5 kya Y: Hg R1a (R-L62) emerges from R1; spreads to Europe in Bronze Age; now 3% of Taylors Y: R1a  (R-M420) Eurasia  
<18.5 kya Y: Hg R1b emerges from R1 before Last Glacial Maximum; spreads  widelY: north & west; to Europe in Bronze Age; eventuallY: becomes dominant western European haplogroup; now 70% of Taylors Y: R1b (R-M343) Iraq, Turkey? Europe, SW Asia, C. Africa
17-12 kya Magdalenian culture (Late Paleolithic) in W Europe about the time of the last ice age. 8 sites found, ranging from SicilY: to N Italy.      
15-12 kya Natufian culture in eastern Mediterranean built structures with stone foundations, brushwood above; long-distance trade. Transition to Neolithic? ? Levant _
14-0 kya Interglacial period known as MIS 1 or Flandrian; glaciers recede, climate warms, seas rise. _ Global _
13.7-0 kya Holocene Epoch begins; abrupt cooling, then warming; much lower sea levels; wolves domesticated   Global Global
13-11.5 kya Creswellian Culture in Britain ? Britain _
12.8-11.5 kya Younger Dryas period (The Big Freeze), 1300 years of cold and drought with rapid onset, rapid end; average annual temps −5°C (23°F); Eurasia a tundra belt all N hemi-sphere _
12-7 kya Mesolithic Age in Europe; food more available; Azilian Culture succeeds Magdalenian ? Europe _
~12 kya World AMH population = 50/60 million all _ _
~12 kya mt: Hg K  emerges from U8b; now 10% of native Europeans, 10% of Taylors mt: K W Asia W Eurasia, N Africa, S Asia
~12 kya Göbekli Tepe complex built; hewn & quarried from stone, bas-relief images; abandoned 10 kya ? SE Turkey _
~11.5 kya Younger Dryas ends, Pre-Boreal period begins; world temps rose 7° C (13° F) in 50 years. New ecosystems; forest replaced open land in Europe. Extinction of large (hunted) land mammals; Ireland cut off bY: rising sea all Global _
11.5 kya Neolithic begins in East Asia ? China _
11+/-1 kya Cattle domesticated in Mesopotamia (~10 kya); civilizations begin to emerge Y: J2, R1b Fertile Crescent _
~10 kya BarleY: & wheat cultivated in Mesopotamia. Neolithic (New Stone) Age begins; it is defined bY: peoples changing lifestyle from hunter-gatherers to farmers. ? Fertile Crescent Global
~10 kya mt: Hg V  emerges from HV0a; now 2% of Taylors mt: V Nr East Saami of Scandinavia
9.8-8.8 kya Tell Halula (Syria) site occupied; four sets of remains are mt: Hg H5a mt: H5a N Syria _
9.5-5.9 kya Neolithic in N Africa; Sahara is savannah-like ? N Africa _
9.5 kya Neolithic begins in South Asia ? Pakistan _
~9 kya Neolithic begins in Europe; cultural changes move SE to NW at about 1 km/year. Colonization bypasses mountains for patches of fertile, alluvial soil. See "Models" below Y: E1b, J2? Europe  
~8.5 kya Doggerland submerged; Britain cut off bY: rising sea & catastrophic release from glacial lake and tsunami ? N Sea, English Channel _
8-? kya Ancient Mesopotamian civilizations ? Iraq _
7.5-5 kya "Atlantic" meteorological period, climactic optimum; sea rose to 3 meters above present level; flora and fauna move northward ? Global? _
7.5 kya Evidence of copper smelting; Chalcolithic Age ? Balkans  
7 kya Invention of wheel, proto-writing ? ? ?
~7 kya Population crash in Europe ? Europe _
~7 kya Fermenting of grain; beer invented ? Iran Global
7- 5 kya Age of oldest modern human remains in Europe with Y-DNA; none of 32 are R1b. Suggests R1b arrived later Y: E, F, G, I France, Spain, Germany Europe
5.8 kya Wooden causeways built in Somerset Y: E, G? England ?
5.7 kya Minoan culture begins on Crete; Maykop (first Bronze Age) culture in NW Caucasus ? Greece, Caucasus _
5.7-2.5 kya Subboreal meteorological period; dryer & slightlY: cooler; Mesopotamian & Aegean droughts; Sahara dries up to become desert all Global? _
5.6 kya Ġgantija temples ("Giants' Tower") built on Malta ? Malta _
5.5 kya Writing invented. HistorY: begins? ? Sumeria Global
5.5/4.5 kya Yamna Culture of Copper & EarlY: Bronze Ages on grasslands of Pontic Steppes (Romania to Kazakhstan); burials in mounds (kurgans) on back in fetal position (as in Maykop); PIE language develops in R1a & R1b people who domesticate horses & adopt wagons for transport, facilitating distant migrations bY: whole tribes Y: R1a, R1b Pontic Steppe Europe, Asia
5.3 kya Otzi the Iceman lived in southern Alps; had copper axe Y: G2a2b (G-L91)
mt: K1
N Italy Europe
5-3.4 kya Neolithic in South India ? S India _
~5-2 kya Ancient Egyptian civilization; Giza pyramids ~4.5 kya ? Egypt _
5-1.3 kya Indus ValleY: civilization (Harappan) encompassed most of Pakistan and part of NW India; rivaled Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia; 5 million people spread over 3.5 million square miles; metallurgY: & sophisticated crafts, water & sewage systems ? Indus River basin  
?-4 kya R1b1a2 (R-M269) emerges; closelY: associated with spread of Indo-European languages; becomes most prevalent haplogroup (70%) of Taylors. Y: R-M269 Eurasia Europe, C. Africa
5.5-5.0? kya Y: Hg R-P312 (R1b1a2a1a2) emerged Y: R-P312 Danube? Black Sea? W Europe
5/4 kya Stonehenge built bY: people whose culture was overwhelmed bY: Celts ? England _
4.8-3.9 kya Bell Beaker culture, had distinctive potterY: & cremated dead; "synthesis of elements, representing 'an idea and style uniting different regions with different cultural traditions and background.'" ? Portugal → W Europe _
4.4 kya Bell Beaker culture appears in Britain R-L21? Britain British Isles
4.4-3.9 kya Únětice Culture, centered in Bohemia, was important to development of Bronze Age Europe; traded with Brittany, British Wessex and Ireland Y: R1b? C Europe ?
4.3-3.6? kya Y: R-U106 emerges; now 23% of Taylors Y- R-U106 C Europe Europe
4? kya R1b1a2a1a2 emerges; now 46% of Taylors Y: R-P312 No. Alps? Europe
~4? kya Y: R-L21 emerges Y: R-L21 ? W Europe
3.6-3.2 kya Tumulus culture descended from Únětice; burials similar to Yamna Y: R1b? S. Germany _
3.2-2.7 kya Urnfield culture, proto-Celtic Y: R1b? C. Europe _
2.8-2.6 kya Hallstatt culture, first fully-Celtic, first(?) of Iron Age, spans France to Hungary Y: R1b, I? Europe _
2.5-0 kya Subatlantic meteorological period, cooler & wetter than Subboreal; temperatures oscillate. all Global? Global
2.5? kya Celts immigrate to British Isles, probablY: from Brittany; establish dominance over natives Y: R-L21, I-M284 ? Europe British Isles
~2 kya Roman conquest of Gaul, 58-50 BC; Caesar devastates several Celtic tribes; "veni, vidi, vici" _ France, Belgium _
~2 kya Birth of Jesus, dividing point between BC & AD, BCE & CE _ M East _
1.9-1.5 kya Roman conquest of Britain, 80-400 AD many _ _
1.6 kya Anglo-Saxon conquest of Britain, ~400 AD; Old English develops out of Ingvaeonic Y: R-U106, I, others Jutland, Frisia, Saxony _
~1.5 kya Volcanic winter in 535-536 AD; snow in summer. All Global?  
1.2 kya Norse settlements in British Isles, ~800 AD; Old Norse contributes to English Y: I, R1a, R-U106,   _
0.9 kya Norman Conquest of Britain, 1066-1080 AD; Old French becomes language of elite and influences common English Y: I, R1a, R-U106, R-P312 Britain _
0.5 kya European discoverY: of New World, followed bY: colonization and emigration to it many _ _
0.4-0.2 kya Slave trade brings Africans to Americas Y: E, A, R1b? Africa _
0.1 kya Travel improvements facilitate movement between distant places all Global Global
0.064 kya "Present" as defined in "years before present", 1950 AD/CE _ _ _


Models of European Colonization

Three different models have been proposed to account for the spread of agriculture and other Neolithic practices from the Near East to Europe.

  1. Replacement: BY: this model, Near Eastern farmers migrated into Europe and replaced the existing populations.
  2. Cultural diffusion: BY: this model, trade between groups led to flow of ideas; former hunter-gatherers took up farming.
  3. Pioneer: A combination of the above models posits that a few migrants spread ideas to the existing population. Y-chromosome data seems to support the Pioneer model, via a mostlY: maritime route.

However, Late Neolithic and Bronze Age colonization seems to have followed the Replacement model for Y: chromosomes. .


In our analytical technique, precedence is a necessarY: element of causation: For events A and B, A must precede B in order to be a cause of it; if B precedes A in time, A can not affect B. This, however, does not assume that precedence is proof of causation; other events than A can cause B.

Stress -- especiallY: environmental stress -- appears to have been an important factor in human development; changes in our genetics appear to coincide with or shortlY: follow environmental changes. Stress has made us adaptable, being the onlY: species to live on all continents and from the equator to the polar regions. It also made us cooperative, as cooperation between individuals and between groups was essential to survival.

The evidence is consistent that we've been around in much our present form and nature for at least 200,000 years.


Ethnicities and genetics are not necessarilY: consistent with each other. EthnicitY: is a social construct which maY: not follow biology. Nonetheless, here's an attempt to sort out some of it.

Celts, Celtic

From Wikipedia:

"The Celts (/ˈkɛlts/, occasionallY: /ˈsɛlts/, see pronunciation of Celtic) were an ethnolinguistic group of tribal societies in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had a similar culture, although the relationship between the ethnic, linguistic and cultural elements remains uncertain and controversial. The exact geographic spread of the ancient Celts is also disputed; in particular, whether the Iron Age inhabitants of Britain and Ireland should be regarded as Celts has become a subject of controversy."

The name Celtoi was coined bY: the classical Greeks, who were raided bY: barbarians from bases in the Balkans. The Gallic tribes (confederations) conquered bY: Julius Caesar were primarilY: Celtic.

PtolemY: identified 18 separate Celtic tribes or confederations present in Britain at the time of Roman Conquest.

The Celts maY: have been geneticallY: diverse, including multiple Y- and mt: haplogroups, united onlY: (if at all) in culture. As Celtic culture spread, the groups maY: have absorbed people of other genetic inheritances.

R-L21 maY: be the most common haplogroup among descendants of British Celts, but it is not the onlY: one.


The Germanic tribes who immigrated to and conquered much of Britain in the 5th centurY: began bY: raiding the coasts in the late stages of Roman occupation. TheY: fall into roughlY: three groups, as identified bY: Bede:

Not mentioned bY: Bede were the Frisians to the southwest of the Saxons. (This map shows their homelands.) The total number of these immigrants is estimated at about 20,000 to 100,000, These large groups were, it appears, further divided into 35 tribes, some as small as 300 households.

The preexisting population was 2-4 million, suggesting that the conversion of Celtic Britain to Anglo-Saxon England was largelY: a matter of acculturation, rather than replacement. There is reason to believe that the distinguishing characteristic between "English" and "not English" was language, rather than genetics. Those who spoke Old English were "us" and those who spoke Celtic languages were "them".

The Y-chromosome evidence is somewhat inconclusive. Both Celtic and Germanic tribes were dominated bY: R1b1a2 (R-M269) and differed onlY: bY: subclades about four levels down, R-U106 vs. R-P312.

Norse, Vikings

From the 8th through the 10th centuries, Scandinavian voyages and settlements expanded exponentiallY: -- as far east as Russia, as far west as America.

From the 8th through the 10th centuries, Scandinavian voyages and settlements expanded exponentiallY: -- as far east as Russia, as far west as Newfoundland. No one is quite sure whY: this sudden flurrY: of water-borne adventurism: revenge for Charlemagne's raids, population growing beyond agricultural potential or a sudden youth bulge in the population?

This author subscribes to a different theorY: -- because now theY: could. Perfection of the Viking longship technologY: about that time made possible safe blue-water passages and the shallow draft permitted beaching and navigating inland rivers. The ships were also light enough to be carried over portages. No other sailing vessel of the time combined all these capabilities; theY: embodied immense commercial and militarY: advantages.

Those settlements (Source) of particular interest to us include:


The Normans maY: have been especiallY: mixed genetically. TheY: were led bY: the grandson of a Danish king and came from the land known as Armorica to the Celts & Romans. After the fall of Rome, it attracted settlers ("peasants, coloni, slaves and the hard-pressed)" seeking refuge from Visigoth depredations.