Other pages & sections of our site:
[Home]  [Y-DNA]   [Contacts   [Groups]  [Haplogroups[Trees]  [Project Blog]  [Special]   [FAQ]

About R-P312

This pages is about the branch of R1b known as R-P312 or R1b1a2a1a2. The other major European branch is R-U106 (R1b1a2a1a1).

R-P312 is important in the Taylor surname. About two-thirds of R1b Taylors are P312+, one-third U106+ (P312-). Including all haplogroups, R-P312 accounts for ~45% of Taylor Family Genes members.



Subclades of R-P312

R-P312  [S116 is equivalent]
(2014 phylogenetic name, R1b1a2a1a2)

R-P312 is the Western subgroup of R-M269 → L11, the most common in Western Romance and Celtic-speaking areas. It has several subclades which have clear geographic pattern, the biggest being U152 and L21 (below).

In its P312* (U152- L21-) form, it is most common in Iberia (35-50%) and France (20-35%), but also occurs frequently in Ireland, England and Switzerland(10-20%). It is less frequent (5-10%) in Northern Italy, Germany, the Netherlands and Scandinavia.

Its estimated age is similar to that of U106, approximately 4-5.5 kya (1,000s of years ago) or 3500-2000 BCE. This time suggests its emergence in the Late Chalcolithic (Copper) or Early Bronze Ages.

Diversity points on France as the likely place of origin, and it is usually connected to the spread of Celto-Italic speaking populations. However, it may represent a more ancient folk (related to Basques) who only later adopted Celtic languages and culture.

See “Y Classic Chart” #5 subgroups and the “atlantic-r1b1c” subclades project. “Atlantic” is a reference to the "Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype" and the preponderance of R1b-P312 along the Atlantic Coasts of Europe.

Modal haplotype at Ysearch -- ID: XQJ7H

An excellent diagram of the P312 tree can be found here.

Downstream SNPs include:

R-DF27 [S250 is equivalent]
(2014 phylogenetic name, R1b1a2a1a2a,  AKA R1b-P312* paragroup of people)

R-DF27 is a recently discovered subclade of R1b-P312 that has been found to encompass all of R1b-SRY2627 and R1b-M153.

Its small subgroup M153 is only found among Basques, while subgroup L176.2 consists of a Scandinavian (L165) and a Mediterranean (SRY2627/M167) branch.

These have been considered Iberian Peninsular subclades but SRY2627 spreads as far north as Scandinavia and as far east as Germany. The old R1b North-South cluster is now also classified under R1b-DF27.

See “Y Classic Chart” #8 subgroups and the “atlantic-r1b1c” subclades project. (M.Walsh added DF27 section.)

Modal haplotype at Ysearch  -- ID: 53ZBP

SNPs downstream of DF27:

  1. Z195/S227, S355/Z196
  2. L176.2/S179.2
  3. L617
  4. L881

R-U152 [S28 is equivalent]
(2014 phylogenetic name, R1b1a2a1a2b)

R1b-U152 is the Alpine and Italian subclade of P312. It is most frequent in North Italy and Switzerland (20-40%) and South Germany and France (10-20%) with decreasing frequencies towards neighboring areas (England, Low Countries, North Germany, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, South Italy, Iberia 5-10%). It also forms an isolated tribe among Bashkirs (Western Urals).

Its diversity peak is in Germany and France so, to our present knowledge, it more likely arose on the Northern slopes of the Alps, rather than the South. Its age is approximately 3.5-5 kya or 3000-1500 BCE.

It is usually connected with the spread of the La Tene Iron Age archeological culture and historical Central European Celtic tribes, but it is nearly absent from present-day Celtic-speaking territories on the Atlantic coast. There are also theories connecting it to the spread of the Italic languages and later Roman colonization due to its Italian frequency, but these are not verified yet. Its main subgroups are the U152*, L2*, L20 and DYS492=14 groups, see the R1b-U152 project for more information.

See “Y Classic Chart” #6 subgroups and the “R1b-U152” subclades project.

Modal haplotype at Ysearch -- ID: QM4ES

SNPs downstream of U152:

  1. L2/S139
  2. Z36/S206
  3. PF6601/Z56

R-L21 [S145, M512 are equivalent]
(2014 phylogenetic name, R1b1a2a1a2c) 

R1b-L21 is a predominantly British and Northwestern French subclade of P312 and is often referred to as a “Celtic marker”.

It is most frequent in Ireland (50-90%), England (15-40%) and Bretagne (14%). L21 is dominant, too, among North Americans due to their British Isles heritage. It also appears at reasonable frequencies in Norway and historically Celtic-inhabited areas of Iberia, France and Germany (2-10%), and more rarely in East Central Europe and Italy.

Its estimated age is close to that of P312, approx.4-5.5 kya or 3500-2000 BCE. It is disputed when L21 reached the British Isles, some argue for a Bronze Age (Beaker culture) arrival, while others argue for a completely Celtic origin. L21 has several well-established subgroups like M222, L513, DF21, DF41, Z253 and Z255.

Antatole Klyosov, using STR haplotypes in 2010, estimated the age of L21 at ~3.6 kya, or ~140 generations.

See “Y Classic Chart” #7 subgroups and the “R-L21” subclades project.

Modal haplotype at Ysearch  -- ID: K9VGV

SNPs downstream of L21:

  1. CTS241/DF13/S521
  2. L513/DF1/S21
  3. L96
  4. L195/S354, L144.1/S175
  5. Z255/S219
  6. Z253/S218
  7. DF21/S192
  8. L371/S300
  9. CTS2501/S836, CTS6581/DF41/S524
  10. S470/Z251
  11. L1335/S530
  12. CTS4466/S1136
  13. CTS2457.2
  14. L679

R-L238 [S182 is equivalent]
(2014 phylogenetic name, R1b1a2a1a2d)

Modal haplotype at Ysearch -- ID:

SNPs downstream of L238:

R-DF19 [S232 is equivalent]
(2014 phylogenetic name, R1b1a2a1a2e)

Modal haplotype at Ysearch -- ID:

SNPs downstream of DF19:

R-DF99[S11987 is equivalent]
(2014 phylogenetic name, R1b1a2a1a2f)

DF99 is a recently-identified subclade of P312. It has not been studied as extensively as others.

Modal haplotype at Ysearch  -- ID:

SNPs downstream of DF99: